The Psychology of Repression and Polarization

The average number of repression events per month before March 2020 was 1.63. A simple calculation suggests that there were nearly seventy-nine more 轉按 events across the forty-nine African countries in our sample after shutdowns. These results are statistically significant at the 95 percent level, indicating high confidence that repression rose following the implementation of COVID-19 shutdown orders. Defensiveness concerns different strategies to protect oneself against being psychologically hurt, which include repression and anxious defensiveness . Although high levels of defensiveness characterize both forms, repressors report relatively low distress levels, whereas anxious defensive persons report relatively high distress levels.

She used four different data sources to come up with her list of countries. One of the sources is the Polity dataset, which she also uses to measure the levels of political competition across those 101 countries. This leads me to ask further whether it is really necessary to distinguish democracies and nondemocracies in the first place. Sarkissian claims that the two political regimes are significantly different, yet it should be empirically tested whether democracies manifest fundamentally different patterns of religious repression, if they ever engage in it. Second, I also wish that Sarkissian had used more advanced statistical methods to demonstrate the relative significance of her two main independent variables—political competition and religious hostilities—in determining different levels and types of religious repression.

Signs and symptoms of abuse or trauma include appetite or mood changes, alcohol and/or drug abuse, difficulty sleeping, and anger. Treatment may incorporate a combination of medication and talk therapy. A Therapist’s List of Top Ten Phobias A phobia is a strong, irrational fear of something that poses little or no actual danger. A phobia is a persistent, excessive, unrealistic fear of an object, person, animal, activity or a situation. The top ten phobias include social phobia, claustrophobia, zoophobia, brontophobia, acrophobia, blood, injury and infection phobia, aerophobia, atychiphobia, thanatophobia and nosophobia. Check out the parable Freud used to explain the alternatives to repression.

The concept of repressed memories was developed by the psychoanalytic scholar Sigmund Freud, who was influenced by the hypnotist Jean-Martin Charcot in the late 19th Century. Since then, the existence of repressed memories has become a highly controversial topic in psychology, and research shows that researchers and clinicians are still in debate. The administration and its allies, however, have said the record border arrivals are part of a broader displacement crisis fueled by pandemic-era economic woes, natural disasters, violence and political repression in parts of Latin America. The therapeutic value of retrieving repressed memories is a controversial concept that created a lot of interest in the late 1900s, when many adults reported memories of childhood abuse they hadn’t been aware of until undergoing therapy. Retrieving repressed memories may have a therapeutic effect for some people, but for some, especially if the memories are traumatic, it may actually make things worse.

First described by Sigmund Freud, the purpose of this defense mechanism is to try to minimize feelings of guilt and anxiety. There is an area of research that studies the effects of inhibiting emotional behavior and another area of research that is interested in the effect of thought suppression (Abramowitz et al. 2001). Participants in such studies are asked to refrain from emotional behavior, such as facial expressions, or not to think of a certain image. Gross uses the term ‘emotional suppression’ in the sense of an act and describes it as the conscious inhibition of behavioral signs of emotion, while being emotionally aroused . You have had a lifetime of perfecting an avoidance coping strategy, and it will take effort to learn a different way to cope.

However, the finding that the CECS scales clustered in one factor and the WAI repression scales in two other factors, could be seen as support for our division into personally related and socially related repression. What is the precise relationship between these two concepts and repression? The character of self-deception, i.e., believing one’s positive self-report, is completely compatible with the definition of repression.

Yet, including only responsive repression is an incomplete assessment of political repression, and it portrays the state as being perpetually flat-footed in its response to domestic political challenges. The concept of repressed memories claims that people, through therapy, can recover memories of traumatic experiences (e.g., abuse) that were unknown to them prior to therapy. While it was once thought that psychoanalysis helped people by surfacing repressed memories, it is currently believed that there are many other therapeutic actions that contribute to the success of any type of psychological therapy, psychoanalysis or otherwise.

They might have difficulty talking about their thoughts or feelings, even becoming defensive when asked about them. They might feel numb or take subconscious actions to avoid difficult feelings. Freud believed that the unconscious mind has a powerful impact on personality and could potentially lead to psychological distress.

In many ways, lockdown measures hamstrung opposition forces by restricting their ability to credibly threaten mass protest or other forms of dissent and mobilizations against human rights violations. For example, Melissa Pavlik shows that demonstration activity fell by about one-third globally during the pandemic compared with pre-pandemic levels.55 Some burgeoning or resurgent protest movements, like those in Iraq and Lebanon, were stymied following lockdown orders. Our theory of opportunistic repression explains how crises and emergencies affect governments’ patterns of repression.

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